Ronald J. DeHaas

P.O. Box 397

Owosso, MI 48867

November 16, 2004








Negative-time information quanta, herein referred to as "backyons" provide the hidden variable necessary to establish a deterministic model of quantum physics. Backyons provide information about the future to systems, thereby determining which of multiple possible outcomes must arise. One single universe (the "ultimate observer") outcome is demanded by this model; that universe may be open, flat, or closed. As a result of determinism provided by this model, scientific laws work; furthermore, if backyons manifest themselves as detectable matter or energy, we may be able to use them, without necessarily being able to "read" the future. Entropy may eventually decrease as backyon flow decreases. Considering the backyons now being emitted by us backwards in time allows for philosophical considerations of "memory" and certain "paranormal" experiences.

All of the other theories have an implicit (and generally unstated) assumption that causality moves forward through time. The theory presented here discards that assumption, with the result that causality moves backwards through time.





Quantum physics, relativity, classical physics, and common sense seem at odds with one another. How strange that now, 100 years after relativity made its debut, we should only historically consider Einstein's quest for a deterministic answer to quantum riddles.


Ancient questions posed even by present-day philosophers address our innate sense of passing time, of "being" and "becoming," while modern physicists have quietly taken front stage in the realm of philosophy in pursuing what "reality" really "is."


Enough has been written to allow forgoing a summary of the conflicts of the Copenhagen interpretation, the multi-universe theory, or the mystery particle/hidden variable that Einstein sought to explain the apparent irreducible randomness of quantum mechanics.


But, as is usual in physics and cosmology, there is likely a "way out" - way out though it may be. A brief discussion of time is ... well, timely.






For all its importance in the history of physics, time surely is one of the most enigmatic of concepts. Our human side insists it has an understanding of time, but all of science lacks even a basic definition of the word. For such a universally essential quantity, time remains a rather esoteric critter, underneath its veil of ethereal transparency.


Science fiction writers and physicists have toyed with the idea of going backwards in time; relativity even provides for special cases of apparent time reversal. Stephen Hawking in A Brief History of Time illustrated the concept that gravitons can be considered as "particles" traveling always backwards in time. This makes some intuitive sense, in terms of conservation of momentum; a collision of a negative-time (t-) particle with a positive-time (t+) particle would result in the t+ particle "bouncing" towards, rather than away from, the direction of the t- particle - just the opposite from what would be expected when two t+ particles collide.


Perhaps time is nothing more than a positive (+) or a negative (-), sort of like spin. Perhaps our intuitive sense of time is nothing more than a conscious awareness of some summation of all the reactions of the (+) and (-) particles, strings, etc. around us, dominated by positive-time reactions. Our sense of time may also be heavily influenced by the evident fact that the "matter" of the periodic table consists of t+ particles.


If gravity could be considered t-, what else could be t-? Could, for instance, dark matter/dark energy be t-? Could there be a quantity like "information" which travels backwards through time? Could dark matter/dark energy in fact be t- information?



The Deterministic Quantum


A t- information quantity (particle? string?), herein referred to as the "backyon," brings Einstein (a la EPR) and Copenhagen together, and untangles entanglement. It eliminates the need for many universes, and in fact demands only one.


Take, for a quantum-level example, the "entanglement" of two entangled photons. As they move apart, backyons flow back to their origin so that, at the time of entanglement the photons are already provided with the information on what they will become. The first photon to be observed will provide all the information necessary, by way of its backyons, for the other photon to "know" what it must become, even as the photons initially split apart.


Moving into a cosmological scale, the one single end result of our solitary universe (the "ultimate observer") is right now, and since the Big Bang has been, sending backyons to determine, quite deterministically, every reaction of every particle and string, every quantum decision. All of quantum uncertainty, every probability amplitude is already determined by backyons sent from that one end-resulting universe out there, but from our end of time, we see only the multitude of "could-be's" and the probability of "ought-to-be's" without being able to see the single "must-be."


The fact that scientific laws seem to work, the fact that a chair exists, points to a final end (though that final end may in itself be eternal and infinite) -- it is because of the pointer that scientific laws work, that things exist, that there is "reality." It must be so.


While we comfort ourselves in our predestinarianism, we are able to predict. Perhaps we can hope to determine whether the end-resulting universe will be/already is open, flat, or closed. Perhaps if the backyons manifest themselves as dark matter or dark energy, we can even use them somehow. Perhaps entropy's increase is nothing more than more backyons flowing from the future to the present than there are flowing from the present to the past -- could we reach some midway point in the universe's space-time history, after which entropy will reverse itself?



Looking Back


Philosophers like Augustine have puzzled over how it is that the past is in memory, but the future is not. Backyons, being shipped off by us, navigate their way to the past so as to control it, perhaps allowing us to see the past as "memory." In any event, it is easy to understand that we can somehow connect with the past through backyons which we emit, as opposed to connecting with the future through backyons that have not yet arrived.


There is something to be said here for consciousness and the mind. The existence of backyons would lend itself to the suggestion, perhaps even the prediction, of certain "paranormal" experiences like deja vu, short-term prediction of the future, and other phenomena.


Ronald J. DeHaas

November 16, 2004


Copyright 2004 Ronald J. DeHaas